Maintenance in General is a necessity for SQL Server.  No different than changing the oil in your car or going to the Doctor for the annual exam.  There is going to be times when you are going to need to run maintenance on your server.  The tricky part is trying to determine when you should start the maintenance jobs before the busy time. For example, what if you need to backup your database, then re-index your database and follow it up with a consistency check.

The common approach to this problem is to simply determine how long a job executes (often determined by trial and error) and then adjust the start time of each job to give the job enough time to execute, before starting the next job.  The problem with this method is you are hoping the first job in the chain completes on time before you start the second job.  The common way to avoid this is leaving gaps so one long running job does not step on the next job.  However, there are options…

Option 1

If you are using a maintenance plan you can keep all the tasks that are schedule to run at the same time in the same sub-plan.  Sometimes this does not provide the flexibility that individuals want, but it is an effective method.

Option 2

You can create multiple steps to a single job.  If we use the example above where you want to run a backups, than re-index and then DBCC, you can create 3 different steps, this way as soon as one step completes the next step is executed. This method removes the need for guessing when one job would finish and the next job start.

Option 3

Each task could have its own job, then the last step of each job would start the next job.  This will add a lot of flexibility to your maintenance.  I like to use this in a couple different kinds of situations.

  1. If your maintenance is done by using multiple tools, for example… a Red Gate Backup, a custom re-indexing plan and a simple t-sql script to run a consistency check.
  2. If your maintenance is done across multiple servers… If you have 3 servers that all backup to the same network share, you could have one server execute at a time to not clog up the network and the storage.

Adding a step to execute the next job is pretty simple.

exec sp_start_job @job_name=N’My Job Name’

 

If you need to schedule this to occur across server, you can simply make the call to the other server using a linked server.

I hope this tip has helped you in one fashion or another.

 

 

Maintenance in General is a necessity for SQL Server.  No different than changing the oil in your car or going to the Doctor for the annual exam.  There is going to be times when you are going to need to run maintenance on your server.  The tricky part is trying to determine when you should start the maintenance so that it completes before the busy time.  The common approach to this problem is to simply determine how long a job executes (often determined by trial and error) and then adjust the start time to give the job enough time to execute.  There is another way…

SQL Server has a number of system stored procedures that you can use to perform tasks that you might be doing in the user interface, for example… If you want to stop a job you can open SQL Server Management Studio, navigate to the job, right click and stop the job.  Here is where the system supplied stored procedure comes into play.  What if your busy time of the day is at 6 AM, and you want to make sure that the indexing has finished by 5:00 AM so that the system is ready to take on the day.  Do you really want to wake up at 5:00 AM just to right click and stop job, in the chance that it is running?

Simply schedule a job that will execute at 5:00 AM (the time you want to make sure the maintenance job is done by), and create a step that will stop the job.

exec sp_stop_job @job_name=N’My Job Name’

Not to complex. But what if you want to add some logic to the job so that not only does it just try to stop the job it will check the job to determine if it is executing first?  And now that we are looking at some of the options there are, we should put a line of code in there that will email us whenever the maintenance job has run long and had to be stopped.

Select name

from msdb..sysjobs j

join msdb..sysjobactivity a on j.job_id = a.job_id and j.name = ‘My Job Name’

Where start_execution_date is not null and stop_execution_date is null

If @@rowcount > 0

Begin

EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_stop_job @job_name = ‘My Job Name’

EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_send_dbmail @profile_name = ‘MyMailProfile’, @recipients = ‘Me@xtivia.com’,

@body = ‘The Indexing Rebuild Job had to be stopped due to long run time.’, @subject = ‘Index Rebuild’ ;

End

Else Return

I hope this tip has helped you in one fashion or another.  If you would like my list of TOP 10 TIPS FOR SQL SERVER PERFORMANCE AND RESILIENCY can be found here with Tip # 1.

 

Top 10 Tips for SQL Server Performance and Resiliency

This article is part 10 in a series on the top 10 most common mistakes that I have seen impact SQL Server Performance and Resiliency. This post is not all-inclusive.

Most common mistake #10: Storage

For the final post in the top 10 items that influence the performance and resiliency of the databases, we will talk about storage.  Storage is by far the number one cause of performance issues I have experienced, and over the last 20 years of my career, the changes with storage have been huge. When I first started as a professional, we were using internal spinning disks and then quickly changed up to internal RAID arrays. Five or so years later, we moved to external RAID cages.  Eventually the road took us to SAN and NAS storage and most recently SSD.  With all these changes, it is easy to see why we have administrators who focus on nothing but storage.  If you are fortunate enough to have a Storage Administrator, do you as a DBA still need to understand what the storage is doing?

How can you identify if you are having some sort of performance bottleneck?  There are a number of indicators that can provide you with the evidence your database is having a storage issue. A common indicator used for a number of years is the storage latency.  Storage latency information is collected by using the Performance Monitor in Windows.  Add the counters Average Disk/sec Read and Average Disk/sec Write.

The storage latency can be monitored in real time or the data can be recorded by starting a data collection.

According to Microsoft Best Practices, the latency on the disk the log file resides should be less than five milliseconds, and the data file latency should be less than 20 milliseconds.  In my experience, I have seen log file latency climb as high as 10 millisecond and sometimes a little higher during spikes without any end user impact.   In addition take location note of the TempDB database as we talked about in Tip 8. You will want to ensure you are keeping the TempDB on the fastest storage you can.

There are additional tools you may want to consider using to dig deeper into the performance of your storage systems such as SQLIO and SQLIOSIM both from Microsoft.  A couple popular third party tools include IOMeter and CrystalDiskMark.

Please do not miss my other blogs regarding this topic.

Top 10 Tips for SQL Server Performance and Resiliency

  1. Improper Backups
  2. Improper Security
  3. Improper Maintenance
  4. Not having a Baseline
  5. SQL Server Max Memory
  6. Change History
  7. Disaster Recovery Plans
  8. TempDB
  9. AutoShrink

 

Top 10 Tips for SQL Server Performance and Resiliency

This article is part 9 in a series on the top 10 most common mistakes that I have seen impact SQL Server Performance and Resiliency. This post is not all-inclusive.

Most common mistake #9: Automatically Shrinking Your Database

This is a topic that has been written about frequently, and most often, I try not to re-hash what many people have already blogged about.  However, as often as I see this I would be amiss if I did not add auto shrink to the list.

Often you will see IT professionals approaching their tasks from different angles.  Consider if you were a Systems Admin and you knew you needed some additional storage on a server you might send a request to the storage admin requesting an additional 50 gigs, or whatever amount you need.  As a Database Professional, you would be wise to not only include the size of storage that you need but also the performance specifications that you require.  As a DBA, we need to understand that SQL Server management may not always translate well to other types of systems management.  Now granted this should be no surprise, it is understand we do not approach all things the same way, but where this comes into play is the understanding we all have different backgrounds.  We became DBA’s from different career paths.

If you are new to being a Database Administrator or the Primary focus of your job is not to be a DBA you may see the benefits of shrinking a database automatically.  If the database shrinks by itself, it might be considered self-management; however, there is a problem when doing this.

When you shrink a data file SQL Server goes in and recovers all the unused pages, during the process it is giving that space back to the OS so the space can be used somewhere else.  The downstream effect of this is going to be the fact your indexes are going to become fragmented.  This can be demonstrated in a simple test.

I have a database in my lab based on the Chicago Crime Stats.  I have been doing a lot of testing in the database with an automated indexing script, that has me inserting a deleting a large number of rows at different times.  Over time this database has become rather large for my small lab, it is time to shrink it down to a more manageable size.  The first thing done is to check what the status of my indexes is.

This is a simple query that will return all the indexes in the database with its fragmentation level.

SELECT db_name() as [database],
      Object_Name(ps.object_id) as [table],
      i.name as Index_Name,
      round(avg_fragmentation_in_percent, 0) as Frag
FROM sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats(db_id(), null, null, NULL, NULL) ps
            Join sys.indexes i on ps.Object_ID = i.object_ID and ps.index_id = i.index_id

 

The results look like this:

image1

 

More or less the indexes are looking good; there is not a lot of fragmentation except in the one table (that is a discussion for later topics). What happens if I shrink the whole database, to include not only the log but also the data file as well?

 

Use the following T-SQL:

DBCC ShrinkDatabase ([ChicagoCrimeStats])

Rerunning the index fragmentation script, I now receive these results:

image2

 

If I have queries that use the IDX_Crimes_Frag_XCORD_Clustered index, there is a real good chance the performance on that query is going to degrade.

There are times when you may need to shrink a file, some considerations could be after a large delete of records or maybe you archived much of the data out of the database.  These sort of operations remove data leaving your databases with a lot of free space.  This free space can be reclaimed by using the DBCC Shrinkfile or DBCC Shrinkdatabase T-SQL commands, however be aware you should re-index after those statements are run.

It is not a bad thing to shrink a database as long as you do it in a controlled manor with proper maintenance afterwards.

Top 10 Tips for SQL Server Performance and Resiliency

  1. Improper Backups
  2. Improper Security
  3. Improper Maintenance
  4. Not having a Baseline
  5. SQL Server Max Memory
  6. Change History
  7. Disaster Recovery Plans
  8. TempDB

Top 10 Tips for SQL Server Performance and Resiliency

This article is part 8 in a series on the top 10 most common mistakes that I have seen impacting SQL Server Performance and Resiliency. This post is not all inclusive.

Most common mistake #8: Default TempDB Settings

By default when you install SQL Server the TempDB database is not optimized.  For SQL Servers that use the TempDB even moderately, I recommend optimizing it for the best performance.  The TempDB is the storage area that SQL Server uses to store data for a short periods of time, information that can be found in the TempDB include temporary tables, and data that is being sorted for query results. The data in the TempDB is so temporary that each time the SQL Server service restarts, the TempDB is recreated.

Due to the specific nature of the data in TempDB and the frequency of use it is important to ensure you have the most optimal configuration.

Optimizing the TempDB is so important that Microsoft is changing how it is installed with SQL Server 2016 to encourage the optimization of Temp DB.  How do you optimize TempDB?  It’s not difficult at all if you follow these few pointers:

Place your Temp DB on that fastest storage you have.  Ultimately this storage should be pounding out a latency less than 5 milliseconds.  Does your server have access to SSD storage?  If so that is a great place for the TempDB.

There are a great number of studies that have been done to determine the ideal number of files you should split your Temp DB over.  With my experience I tend to create one temp DB file for each processor core on the server, however I don’t do this until I find there is some contention in the TempDB.

Grow your TempDB to the size you need it.  Your TempDB is going to be recreated each time your service is restarted, so if your default database size is smaller than the normal operational size  you are going to have to go through some grow events.  Speaking of growth events, it is better to have controlled growth rather than a number of little growth events, so we recommend reviewing the auto growth size.

Top 10 Tips for SQL Server Performance and Resiliency

  1. Improper Backups
  2. Improper Security
  3. Improper Maintenance
  4. Not having a Baseline
  5. SQL Server Max Memory
  6. Change History
  7. Disaster Recovery Plans

 

 

This article is part 7 in a series on the top 10 most common mistakes that I have seen impacting SQL Server Performance and Resiliency. This post is not all inclusive.

Most common mistake #7: Disaster Recovery Plans

Often people hear disaster recovery plan and the first reaction is to start worrying about the costs. Disaster recovery plans don’t have to be expensive, expensive disaster recovery plans come from strict requirements.

About 10 years ago when I started as an independent consultant one of my first clients was contacting me to help build out a disaster recovery plan for them. After our initial discussion I learned some consulting firms had forecasted one hundred thousand dollar solutions. Many large companies would look at that number and determine it was a bargain, however this clients company made less than 50k a year. The data changed about once a year, and if the database was down a week or two it was questioned if anyone would even notice. It was easy to see that the hundred thousand dollar solution was extremely over engineered.

Don’t ignore the basics

Disaster Recovery Solutions should start with two basic questions, what is the recovery point object and what is the recovery time objective.

  • RPO – Recovery Point Objectives – To what point must the database be restored after a disaster. Another way to ask this question would be, how much data can be lost.
  • RTO – Recovery Time Objectives – How much time can elapse after the disaster has occurred? Or, how long can your system can be down?

Depending on these answers additional questions will arise, however these two questions can help determine what potential solutions will work. SQL Server offers a number of solutions from Transaction Log shipping to AlwaysOn Availability Groups.

Pay Attention to the Details

Whenever I visit a datacenter for a client I make sure that I take some time to review how the cages are wired. On more than one occasion I have seen servers with redundant power supplies have both of the power cords plugged into one circuit. This configuration will protect you if one of the power supplies goes bad, however if the circuit goes down the redundant power supply isn’t any help.

When executing a disaster recovery plan ensure all the small details are checked. If there is a single point of failure in the system Murphy is going to find it.

Test

I can tell you the most common mistake I see on a regular basis with Disaster Recovery solutions is the lack of testing. Some testing is better than no testing, but the best testing is testing that mimic’s actual disasters. If there is a power outage for your servers and you have 5 min. to get everything moved do you know the steps to complete before the unlimited power supply loses its charge? What steps must you take if you don’t have the 5 minutes? I was working with the chief technology officer for a major education facility and he had a vendor that was telling him he we safe, and he didn’t have to worry about it. His contract was for a 15 minute recovery point. When we reached out to the vendor and asked them to prove it.

The lesson here is perform regular realistic tests, if they don’t work, find out why and fix it.

Top 10 Tips for SQL Server Performance and Resiliency

  1. Improper Backups
  2. Improper Security
  3. Improper Maintenance
  4. Not having a Baseline
  5. SQL Server Max Memory
  6. Change History

You might have been following along with my recent series of posts related to a number of resiliency tips for SQL Server. I have compiled these tips based off my observations over the last 20 or so years. Over the summer I have the opportunity to present a session that is based on these tips. This week I am in New York, to present at SQL Saturday #380. Attendance is free with a small fee to help cover the cost of lunch.

June 6th I will be in Colorado Springs, Co. presenting the same session at SQL Saturday #415.

I believe there are a couple more SQL Saturdays I will be at this summer. I hope to see many old friends and meet many new ones. Tip #7 should be posted Friday 5/29. If you are looking for a list of the tips that have already posted you can find these here:

Top 10 Tips for SQL Server Performance and Resiliency

  1. Improper Backups
  2. Improper Security
  3. Improper Maintenance
  4. Not having a Baseline
  5. SQL Server Max Memory
  6. Change History